Equipment layout

Equipment layout  is the detailing of conceptual layout. It is the basic document of mechanical engineering design or in other words this document is the basis for development of construction drawing by all disciplines. It is sometimes also referred as plot plan for large outdoor plant. Equipment layout consists of following information floor space needed for the equipment and other facilities are shown and access, removal space, cleaning area, storage space and handling facilities are outlined.

The essential data or documents required for preparation of equipment layout is as: -

1. Process flow diagrams (PFD) and Piping & instrument Diagrams (P& ID). PFD/ P& ID indicates the inter-connectivity of each equipment, information regarding solid handling, gravity feed, line slopes, loop sizes, venting requirement, special piping materials etc. which in turns governs the equipment location to a great extent.

2. Project design data.

This consists of following information as: -

  1. Geographic location, proximity to roads and railway, topography and local codes and regulations, weather conditions such as rainfall records, seasonal temperature differences, wind direction, outlet points for drains etc.
  1. The above information such as wind direction influences the location of cooling towers, furnaces, stacks etc. Similarly, the information regarding outlet drain points affects the design of storm water drains and requirements of enclosures.
  1. Equipment sizes and Building.
  1. This includes fabricated equipment such as vessels, Heat Exchangers, Reactors, Tanks and proprietary equipment like pumps, Compressors, Furnaces etc. For locating the above, the equipment is grouped to have optimum location for minimum pipe run as well as fallow the process flow sequence.
Basic principles of locating the Equipment arrangement in the plant

  1. Economic piping: In order to minimize the cost of piping, the equipment layout should be located in process sequence and close enough to suit safety needs, access requirements and flexibility. The equipments are identified which forms the subsystem within the unit. The component within the subsystem to be arranged to have most economical piping and the whole subsystem to be arranged within the unit to have most economic interconnection.
  1. Process Requirement:-The equipment layout should support requirement like minimum pressure drop, gravity feed and loop.
  1. Common operation:-The equipment that requires common maintenance facilities, common utility and continues operator attention shall be located the same area.
  1. Underground Facilities:-Before deciding the equipment location, the facilities such as storm water drain, effluent drain, fire water, cooling water to be placed underground.
Equipment layout is very useful  document for designing the plant. 


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