Whats are the documents required for equipment layout ?

Equipment layout designing criteria 

The primary consideration in arrangement of equipment's shall be to provide an economical Facility with good weight distribution, minimum lift weight, safe and easy to operate and maintain.

1. All piping components requiring operation or maintenance where practical, shall be Located where they can be operated, serviced conveniently. Access shall be provided to such components if they are located out or reach from platform. Use of chain wheels or Extension stems for the operation of inaccessibly located valves shall be avoided.

2. Piping in banks shall be assigned specific elevation for routing in the north-south and East-west directions. These elevations shall be used throughout except where pockets are to be avoided or where space limitations do not permit use of selected elevations.

3. All piping shall be kept inside the deck area. It shall be taken out of the deck area only if it is unavoidable.

Inputs required starting with equipment layout.

  • Basic description of work (Project specific)
  • Prevailing wind and current direction
  • Maximum wave crest height
  • Installation and construction requirements- by structural dept.
  • Electrical and instrumentation panel and room dimensions with operational and maintenance clearance.
  • Inline instruments dimensions and clearances for operation and maintenance - preliminary
  • Dimensions of instrumentation skids.
  • Process design basis
  • Piping design specification
  • Mechanical and safety design specification
  • Material handling requirement specification
  • Pipeline riser location data.
  • PFD/P&ID
  • Equipment list with basic dimensions (Including Safety equipment's)
  • Vendor drawings or data- Equivalent past project data.
  • Hazardous area classification - preliminary input from electrical discipline.
  • ASME B 31.3, API RP 14E, 14J, CAP-437 and Statutory guidelines

Major parameters of an equipment layout.

  • Platform North - decided based on prevailing wind direction
  • Drill rig approach direction - applicable for wellhead platforms, decided based on prevailing wind direction.
  • Boat I Vessel approach - decided based on prevailing wind direction
  • BOS for lower most deck - considering maximum wave crest height plus specified Air gap.
  • Leg to Leg dimensions - In consultation with Structural dept., Base on project specific requirements
  • Locating Heli deck - Refer CAP 437
  • Number of levels - project specific
  • Basic segregation of Equipment's - Refer API RP 14E

Swing Spool: what is swing spool

Swing spool 

Swing spool is used to change the service/operation in the plant from one system to another system without addition of new pipe spool. Same old pipe spool is used to when switchover   the operation from one service to another service. Swing spool reduce the down time and cost of the of the running plant because existing piping spool is already in the plant within the same location.

Operation team must isolate that system and then take all the necessary approval from safety then do the changeover of swing spool. While doing the changeover of the swing spool operation team need new gaskets and bolts and nuts.  Gasket/bolts, nuts may be damage while removing that swing spool from previous connecting line because that swing spool is operation from long time. It may damage from rust or from the wear or tear while opening the nut/bolts by mechanical forces.  

what is HIPPS

High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) valves



HIPPS valves are used as the final part of an instrumented system intended to prevent an unacceptably high pressure occurring in downstream equipment. They are always arranged to fail closed and spring/hydraulic  actuators are usually the only practical alternative for operation.



 In general, closure times should be maximized or, if times have to be short, tests should be undertaken Required closure speed depends on the closed-in volume downstream and the working fluid (e.g. if there is a high volume, gas filled system downstream, valve closure speed need not be fast).


 HIPPS applications have the following characteristics:
  • High pressure always available at time of emergency closure.
  • Low differential pressure during closure;
  • High differential pressure after closure;
  • Requirement for periodic closure (or partial closure) and seat leakage testing; (Occasionally) fast closure.
  • The first two make for particularly benign operating conditions and the temptation to specify an unnecessarily high differential pressure during closure should be resisted.

Deluge system: What is a Deluge system?

 Deluge system

A deluge system is normally the main firefighting system on any Offshore installation, used to protect process-areas, drilling-areas and other high-risk areas. A Deluge system is normally an automatic system, which is triggered by a fire detector in the protected area, and which is using water as the extinguishing agent.

A deluge system consists basically of a Deluge Control Valve, and a distribution piping network with open deluge nozzles. The Deluge Valve is normally closed, and the distribution pipework is dry. The deluge valve is activated automatically when a fire is detected. The distribution piping network is then immediately pressurized, and all nozzles in the system starts flooding the protected area with a predetermined application rate of water.


The deluge valve is usually installed on a skid together with piping, isolation valves, bypass and test/drain facility.

 

Application Deluge system.

 

A deluge system may be used to protect almost any area as it provides:

 

§ Flame extinguishment

§ Cooling

§ Fire control

Deluge systems, using water or water/foam, will extinguish fires in any, or in a combination, of the following ways:

 

§ Surface Cooling

§ Smothering, by produced steam

§ Emulsification

§ Dilution

§ Other factors

 

Except in very rare cases, where the application of water may cause certain chemicals to burn or explode, deluge systems will have a beneficial effect on all types of fires. Even in cases, such as fires in leaking, pressurized Gas equipment, where flame extinguishment cannot be achieved, the overall cooling effect, with the resulting protection of adjacent equipment, will prevent the fire from spreading and will greatly reduce the damage to both equipment and structure.

 

The extinguishing effect of water on Hydro-Carbon pool-fires can be greatly increased using various types of foaming agent, such as AFFF or ATC.

 

Hazard types where Deluge Systems are used:

  •  Hydrocarbon fires
  •  Wellhead Area
  •  Drill floor
  •  Process Areas
  •  Storage and Piping facilities
  • Gas (Jet) fires
  •  Wellhead Area
  • Drill floor

Material used for Deluge system

One of the major considerations, when specifying a Deluge System, is resistance against corrosion. A deluge system will be operated, for testing purposes, only a limited number of times per year, and yet be required to be fully functional 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. Time has proven the Norwegian Offshore environment very hostile to equipment, especially those in contact with seawater, which is stale, i.e. which is not being refreshed continuously.

 

For this reason, the material requirements are constantly under development, and there has, on the Norwegian sector, been a progression, from Steel (Galvanized) over Bronzes (CuNiFer piping, Bronze valves) and High Molybdenum (6Mo) Stainless Steels to, now, Titanium.

 

§ Titanium, all piping and valves

§ Titanium, with Deluge Valve and permanently wetted Isolation valves in Titanium and    normally dry downstream valves and accessories in Al. Bronze

§ CuNi 90/10 piping, with Deluge Valve and isolation valves in Al. Bronze

§ Stainless Steel 316L piping and valves. (Note: normally used with Cathodic protection)

§ Galvanized piping, with Bronze (Gunmetal) Deluge Valve and Rubber Lined valves.

Insulating gaskets: what is Insulating gaskets

Insulation kits 

Insulation kits are designed to prevent galvanic corrosion between flanges of dissimilar metals, for example a carbon steel flange bolted to a stainless steel flange. A conducting liquid such as water must be present between the two flanges for galvanic corrosion to occur.

On oil and dry gas duties, insulating gaskets are not required. Because of the general unreliability of insulating gaskets, their use should be minimized to areas where only absolutely necessary and only then when agreed with by your Engineering Department.

If used, the insulation kit will consist of the following:

  • insulating gasket;
  • insulating sleeves to be placed around the stud bolts;
  • insulating washers and steel washers.

The conditions that cause galvanic corrosion (two dissimilar metals brought into contact with a conducting medium) must be guarded against. Uncoated carbon steel stud bolts used on stainless steel flanges in a wet environment, and carbon steel pipework screwed into brass gate valves on water duties, are two examples of “galvanic cells” which can easily be avoided.

Three types of kit are available

  • Full Face Gasket Insulating Set:-This set is suitable for both flat face and raised face flanges. The gasket style has the advantage of minimizing the ingress of foreign matter between the flanges and therefore reduces the risk of a conductive path between the two flanges.
  • Inside Bolt Location Gasket Insulating Set:-Inside Bolt Location  Gasket Insulating Set Is only suitable for raised face flanges and the gasket is located within the bolts.
  • Ring Joint Gasket Insulating Set:-The insulating oval RTJ will fit into a standard RTJ flange ring groove.

Insulating Kit Identification and Specification

  • Nominal Pipe Size and Pipe Schedule: Must always be specified. Insulating gaskets, unlike CAF gaskets, are an exact fit, from the OD to the ID of the flange.
  • Flange Pressure Class: Always to be specified.
  • Style of Insulating Kit: Full face or inside bolt location.
  • Gasket Material: Usually phenolic laminate or neoprene faced phenolic laminate

Procedure for Insulating Kit

  • Always use a new insulating kit which has not been removed from the manufacturer’s sealed package. Good insulation requires the insulating parts of the kit to be clean and undamaged.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
  • Use a torque wrench or tensioning equipment to tension the stud bolts to the manufacturer’s recommendations. This is important as insulating gaskets are particularly susceptible to splitting or crushing if overloaded.
  • Ensure that the flange face and the stud bolts are clean.
  • Check for any conducting paths between the two mating flanges which would otherwise render the insulating gaskets ineffective.
  • If in doubt, seek advice from your Engineering Department.
  • Do not re-use old, damaged or unclean insulating kits. These will not provide effective insulation and may be subject to gasket failure.
  • Do not mix and match parts from different insulation kits.
  • Do not use air driven impact tools when bolting up a flange as they may cause the insulating washers to crack.


Vicker hardness test: what is vicker hardness test

Vickers Hardness Test

Vickers Hardness Test: - The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface of the material after removal of the load are measured using a microscope and their average calculated. The area of the sloping surface of the indentation is calculated. The Vickers hardness is the quotient obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation.

F= Load in kgf

d = Arithmetic mean of the two diagonals, d1 and d2 in mm

HV = Vickers hardness

 

When the mean diagonal of the indentation has been determined the Vickers hardness may be calculated from the formula, but is more convenient to use conversion tables. The Vickers hardness should be reported like 800 HV/10, which means a Vickers hardness of 800, was obtained using a 10 kgf force. Several different loading settings give practically identical hardness numbers on uniform material, which is much better than the arbitrary changing of scale with the other hardness testing methods.

The advantages of the Vickers hardness test are that extremely accurate readings can be taken, and just one type of indenter is used for all types of metals and surface treatments. Although thoroughly adaptable and very precise for testing the softest and hardest of materials, under varying loads, the Vickers machine is a floor standing unit that is more expensive than the Brinell or Rockwell machines.

There is now a trend towards reporting Vickers hardness in SI units (MPa or GPa) particularly in academic papers. Unfortunately, this can cause confusion. Vickers hardness (e.g. HV/30) value should normally be expressed as a number only (without the units kgf/mm2). Rigorous application of SI is a problem. Most Vickers hardness testing machines use forces of 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100 kgf and tables for calculating HV. SI would involve reporting force in newtons (compare 700 HV/30 to HV/294 N = 6.87 GPa) which is practically meaningless and messy to engineers and technicians.

To convert a Vickers hardness number the force applied needs converting from kgf to newtons and the area needs converting form mm2 to m2 to give results in pascals using the formula above. 

To convert HV to MPa multiply by 9.807 

To convert HV to GPa multiply by 0.009807


Brinell hardness test: what is brinell hardness test

Brinell hardness test 

Brinell Hardness Test :- The Brinell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected to a load of 3000 kg. For softer materials the load can be reduced to 1500 kg or 500 kg to avoid excessive indentation.

The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds in the case of iron and steel and for at least 30 seconds in the case of other metals. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered microscope. The Brinell harness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation.

 

The diameter of the impression is the average of two readings at right angles and the use of a Brinell hardness number table can simplify the determination of the Brinell hardness. A well structured Brinell hardness number reveals the test conditions, and looks like this, "75 HB 10/500/30" which means that a Brinell Hardness of 75 was obtained using a 10mm diameter hardened steel with a 500 kilogram load applied for a period of 30 seconds. On tests of extremely hard metals a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball.

Compared to the other hardness test methods, the Brinell ball makes the deepest and widest indentation, so the test averages the hardness over a wider amount of material, which will more accurately account for multiple grain structures and any irregularities in the uniformity of the material. This method is the best for achieving the bulk or macro-hardness of a material, particularly those materials with heterogeneous structures.


Rockwell hardness test: What is hardness and Rockwell Hardness Test

 Rockwell hardness test


What is Hardness?

Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration. However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.

Measurement of Hardness:

Hardness is not an intrinsic material property dictated by precise definitions in terms of fundamental units of mass, length and time. A hardness property value is the result of a defined measurement procedure. Hardness of materials has probably long been assessed by resistance to scratching or cutting. 

 Hardness Test Methods:

 Rockwell Hardness Test:- The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor load F0 (A) usually 10 kgf. When equilibrium has been reached, an indicating device, which follows the movements of the indenter and so responds to changes in depth of penetration of the indenter is set to a datum position. 


While the preliminary minor load is still applied an additional major load is applied with resulting increase in penetration (B). When equilibrium has again been reach, the additional major load is removed but the preliminary minor load is still maintained. Removal of the additional major load allows a partial recovery, so reducing the depth of penetration (C). The permanent increase in depth of penetration, resulting from the application and removal of the additional major load is used to calculate the Rockwell hardness number.

HR = E – e

F0 = preliminary minor load in kgf

F1 = additional major load in kgf

F = total load in kgf

e = permanent increase in depth of penetration due to major load F1 measured in units of 0.002 mm

E = a constant depending on form of indenter: 100 units for diamond indenter, 130 units for steel ball indenter

HR = Rockwell hardness number

D = diameter of steel ball

Rockwell Hardness Scales

Scale

Indenter

Minor LoadF0 kgf

Major LoadF1 kgf

Total LoadF kgf

Value of E

A

Diamond cone

10

50

60

100

B

1/16" steel ball

10

90

100

130

C

Diamond cone

10

140

150

100

D

Diamond cone

10

90

100

100

E

1/8" steel ball

10

90

100

130

F

1/16" steel ball

10

50

60

130

G

1/16" steel ball

10

140

150

130

H

1/8" steel ball

10

50

60

130

K

1/8" steel ball

10

140

150

130

L

1/4" steel ball

10

50

60

130

M

1/4" steel ball

10

90

100

130

P

1/4" steel ball

10

140

150

130

R

1/2" steel ball

10

50

60

130

S

1/2" steel ball

10

90

100

130

V

1/2" steel ball

10

140

150

130

 

HRA . . . . Cemented carbides, thin steel and shallow case hardened steel

HRB . . . . Copper alloys, soft steels, aluminium alloys, malleable irons, etc

HRC . . . . Steel, hard cast irons, case hardened steel and other materials harder than 100

HRB

HRD . . . . Thin steel and medium case hardened steel and pearlitic malleable iron

HRE . . . . Cast iron, aluminium and magnesium alloys, bearing metals

HRF . . . . Annealed copper alloys, thin soft sheet metals

HRG . . . . Phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, malleable irons HRH . . . . Aluminium, zinc, lead

HRK . . . . }

HRL . . . . }

 HRM . . . .} . . . . Soft bearing metals, plastics and other very soft materials HRP . . . . }

 HRR . . . . }

 HRS . . . . }

 HRV . . . . }

Advantages of the Rockwell hardness method include the direct Rockwell hardness number readout and rapid testing time. Disadvantages include many arbitrary non-related scales and possible effects from the specimen support anvil (try putting a cigarette paper under a test block and take note of the effect on the hardness reading! Vickers and Brinell methods don't suffer from this effect).


What are Insulating Gasket Kits?

Insulation gasket kits are designed to combat the effects of corrosion often found in flanged pipe systems. Galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metal flanges (flow of currents), flange insulation associated with cathodic protection of underground piping are also the places where Insulating gasket kits are used. It consists of

 

Gasket                                      Neoprene faced Phenolic /Glass Reinforced Epoxy(G10)

Insulation sleeve                       Reinforced Phenolic/Nylon/Polyethylene/(G10)

Insulation washer                       Reinforced Phenolic/ /Nylon/Polyethylene/(G10)

Plated Washer                          Electro plated steel washer.


Fluid Hammer: What is fluid hammer and how it is generated?

 Fluid Hammer

When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one point, through valve closure or a pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped instantaneously as well. As fluid continues to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses, causing a high-pressure situation at that point. Likewise, on the other side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low pressure (vacuum) situation at that location. Fluid at the next elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve seat or the elbow.

 

The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of flow stoppage, thus causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e., zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. However, the unbalanced pressure, by passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg.

 

The unbalanced pressure load will continue to rise and fall in sequential legs as the pressure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink). The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low flow, such as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Since the leading edge of the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse travels through the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration of the load from initiation through the beginning of the down ramp is equal to the time required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg.